Wednesday, June 30, 2010

A Good Custodial Interrogation String Cite

Everybody loves a good string cite.  You know, when the court wants to consolidate lots of authority for its position, but doesn't actually want to write about the cases, so it simply lists a string of case citations with a parenthetical one-line synopsis of the relevant holding.  In reading Campbell v. State, yesterday, a case out of the 2nd District (Fort Worth) regarding custodial versus non-custodial interrogations and Miranda warnings in a DWI context, I came across a good string cite and I thought I'd share it. 

To give some context, the court is in the process of determining whether Appellant's statements to police officers both prior to and after being placed in handcuffs should be excluded under article 38.22 of the Texas Code of Criminal Procedure or Miranda, when it provided this smattering of applicable Texas caselaw on the subject:
  • Alford v. State, 22 S.W.3d 669, 671–72 (Tex. App.—Fort Worth2000, pet. ref’d) holding that appellant was in custody when he was stopped, placedon the ground, and handcuffed, and his response, that he had had six beers, whenasked if he had been drinking by an officer who arrived on the scene seven minutes later, should have been suppressed since he was not given his Miranda warnings;
  • Jordy v. State, 969 S.W.2d 528, 531–32 (Tex. App.—Fort Worth 1998, no pet.) holding that appellant was subjected to a custodial interrogation following a traffic accident when he laid down on the ground and the officer called an ambulance before asking appellant how much he had had to drink, to which appellant replied,“A lot.”
  • Rhodes v. State, 945 S.W.2d 115, 117–18 (Tex. Crim. App.) cert. denied, 522 U.S. 894 (1997) holding that incident was temporary investigative detention when officer testified at suppression hearing that he was not arresting Rhodes when he handcuffed him and that he handcuffed him primarily out of concern for officer safety—it was dark, the area was high-crime, and officer was alone with suspect;
  • Arthur v. State, 216 S.W.3d 50, 53, 57–58 (Tex. App. --Fort Worth 2007, no pet.) holding that appellant’s statements were not a product of custodial interrogation when officer saw appellant’s vehicle drifting and speeding, initiated a traffic stop and asked some questions about whether she had had anything to drink which she answered inconsistently and in a loud, moderately slurred voice and administered three sobriety tests and a portable breath test before arresting her;
  • Hernandez v. State,107 S.W.3d 41, 47–48 (Tex. App.—San Antonio 2003, pet. ref’d) concluding that appellant’s statement that he had consumed nine beers was made during investigatory detention after officer saw appellant speeding and weaving between lanes without signaling, pulled him over, noticed the smell of alcohol and appellant’s bloodshot eyes, and administered three field sobriety tests, all prior to full custodial arrest;
  • Wappler v. State, 104 S.W.3d 661, 668 (Tex. App.—Houston [1st Dist.]2003) concluding that it was reasonable for the officer to secure appellant in handcuffs when appellant was uncooperative and belligerent, so that officer could complete his DWI investigation, rev’d on other grounds, 138 S.W.3d 331 (Tex. Crim. App. 2004);
  • Lewis v. State, 72 S.W.3d 704, 708–13 (Tex. App.—Fort Worth 2002,pet. ref’d) distinguishing Jordy and Alford as presenting “other circumstances”requiring Miranda when their facts went beyond the roadside questioning and sobriety tests found in DWI temporary investigation cases.
There you have it.  If you have a custodial interrogation issue in a DWI case, you now have a jumpstart on your legal research.  Thank you 2nd Court of Appeals.